John Hunter ( - ) Einer der bedeutendsten Chirurgen Englands war John Hunter. John Hunter liebte exotische Tiere: Gefährliche Bullen, Leoparden. Lykaner Liebe: John Hunter | Rain, Liam | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. John Stanley Hunter. Avatar. Autorenübersicht. Artikel von John Stanley Hunter. Blockchain.
Hunter JohnEinige Nachrichten John Hunter & Leben. *) Soặn Hunters Weltern waren John und Agnes Hunter von Kilbride in der Schottlandischen Grafschaft Lanerk. FußballJohn HunterProfil. John Hunter. Third Lanark. geboren, † in: Schottland. Nationalität. Schottland. Karriere. Zeitraum, Mannschaft. הציוצים העדכניים ביותר של John Stanley Hunter (@JohnStanHunter). Journalist · @CapitalMagazin & @FinanceFWD · formerly Business Insider · follow for fintech.
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Hunter never completed a course of studies in any university, and, as was common for surgeons during the 18th century, he never attempted to become a doctor of medicine.
He went to London in to assist in the preparation of dissections for the course of anatomy taught by his brother William, a famed obstetrician.
He began his own private lectures on the principles and practice of surgery in the early s. In addition, he had teaching duties from at St.
In Hunter accepted a commission as an army surgeon. He returned to London in , where he continued in private practice until his death.
Hunter not only made specific contributions of great importance in surgery but also attained for surgery the dignity of a scientific profession, basing its practice on a vast body of general biological principles.
In an attempt to demonstrate that gonorrhea and syphilis are manifestations of a single disease , he inoculated a subject sometimes said to have been himself with pus from a person with gonorrhea.
One of his infant children is buried in the churchyard in Kirkheaton, Northumberland , and the gravestone is Grade II listed.
In , the government purchased Hunter's collection of papers and specimens, which it presented to the Company of Surgeons. Hunter helped to improve understanding of human teeth, bone growth and remodeling, inflammation , gunshot wounds, venereal diseases , digestion , the functioning of the lacteals , child development, the separateness of maternal and foetal blood supplies, and the role of the lymphatic system.
He carried out the first recorded artificial insemination in on a linen draper's wife. Samuel Taylor Coleridge , a key figure in Romantic thought, science, and medicine, saw in Hunter's work the seeds of Romantic medicine , namely as regards his principle of life, which he felt had come from the mind of genius.
WHEN we stand before the bust of John Hunter, or as we enter the magnificent museum furnished by his labours, and pass slowly, with meditative observation through this august temple, which the genius of one great man has raised and dedicated to the wisdom and uniform working of the Creator, we perceive at every step the guidance, we had almost said, the inspiration, of those profound ideas concerning Life, which dawn upon us, indeed, through his written works, but which he has here presented to us in a more perfect language than that of words - the language of God himself, as uttered by Nature.
That the true idea of Life existed in the mind of John Hunter I do not entertain the least doubt In Imogen Robertson 's novel, Instruments of Darkness , anatomist Gabriel Crowther advises an acquaintance to seek refuge at his friend Hunter's home for the young Earl of Sussex's party from deadly pursuers released during the Gordon Riots ; leopards in Hunter's menagerie killed the would-be assassins, and he envisaged their bodies' dissection.
There had been a bust of Hunter in Leicester Square until the —12 redesign of the square. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
John Hunter. Long Calderwood near East Kilbride , Scotland. Battling surgeon. Strickland, Glasgow. The Emperor's new clothes.
Royal Society of Medicine , February. Medical History. Science and the Practice of Medicine in the Nineteenth Century.
Cambridge University. Since the convict settlement developing into an infant colony had neither a free press nor other organ of public opinion, Portland allowed himself to be influenced by private correspondence from disgruntled residents such as Captain John Macarthur of the New South Wales Corps and accordingly the governor was rarely aware of the entire information at the disposal of the government when it communicated its wishes.
Moreover, although the control of the colony and of the convicts lay with the Home Office, it had to rely on the transport branch of the Admiralty for conveying the prisoners half-way round the world.
The military who acted as guards were the responsibility of the secretary at war and of the commissariat, and the Ordnance Department was responsible for military buildings.
The Treasury, the Mint and two audit officers were concerned with the financial well-being of the colony and the Post Office had the relatively easy task of dispatching the mails whenever opportunity arose.
Against this mighty series of government departments Hunter had a resident civil establishment of thirty-one; it included medical staff, superintendents of convicts, master carpenters and the like, and not more than a third could be considered serious official advisers.
The number of officers on duty with the New South Wales Corps was seventeen. There was a great disparity in age between the newly arrived governor, approaching 60, and those who might be called on to act as his advisers.
Macarthur, in the situation of inspector of public works, to which Grose had appointed him, and on whom Hunter relied exceedingly in the early months of his governorship, was 28; Captain Paterson, the corps commandant, was just turned 40; Captain Joseph Foveaux was 30; almost everyone else was younger than Paterson.
Captain John Hunter, R. Instead he faced an entrenched and mutinous soldiery, and an increasingly dispersed body of settlers largely dependent on rum as a currency medium and much at the mercy of the monopolistic trading practices of the military hierarchy and other officials.
There seems to be general agreement that the external appearance of Sydney had improved considerably between Hunter's departure and his return, and this improvement can legitimately be considered the result of the activities of the officers of the New South Wales Corps who had been granted land, convict servants, and finally, though they were officers and gentlemen in an age when trade was looked down upon, permission to enter into the importing business on a large scale.
As each year passed there was an increase in the number of persons no longer supported from government stores as government servants or as convicts, and these people found themselves at the mercy of men who were rarely satisfied with anything less than one hundred per cent profit on their transactions.
The population of New South Wales when Hunter took charge of the government was , of whom or 59 per cent were convicts. Almost all the remainder were military and administrative personnel and prisoners whose terms of servitude had ended.
There were only a dozen or so free emigrants and the settlement was confined to a small region close to the coast, with its economic centre at Parramatta.
Although in a favourable season the colony was almost self-sufficient in grain, it was dependent on overseas supplies for nearly all its essentials, and the need to import cattle and sheep was stressed more strongly in Hunter's instructions than in Phillip's.
During the two years and three-quarters between the departure of Phillip and the arrival of Hunter, private enterprise had tended to supplant that of government as the main form of economic activity.
In December the government cultivated by far the larger proportion of land and most people spent their days working under its direction either on the public farm or on the construction of roads and necessary buildings.
By late , however, the officers and small farmers combined cropped an acreage far exceeding that belonging to the government, produced the greater part of the grain supply and owned most of the livestock in the settlement; so many convicts were privately employed that insufficient were left for limited public works, and Hunter claimed that so acute was the labour shortage that at least another thousand workers could be absorbed.
Thus the colony was becoming increasingly unlike a gaol. The problem facing the smallholders was that if the government produced on its own lands sufficient food for that section of the population fed from government stores, then the farmers would have no market for their produce and it would be impossible to develop a self-reliant colony.
On the other hand the British government, though anxious to encourage private farming, was even more firmly determined that the settlement should be as limited a burden as possible on the Treasury, so Portland insisted that Hunter should pursue a policy that in the long run could only harm local farmers.
Hunter's first action as governor was deliberately to disobey his instructions, and to continue the practice established by Grose of allowing ten convict servants for agricultural and three for domestic purposes to each officer occupying ground.
Other farmers were provided with from one to five assigned convicts. Hunter started out with the idea that government farming was wasteful and inefficient; he was also initially impressed, while still under the influence of Macarthur, with the success achieved by some of the officers whose efforts he thought might prove the backbone of future prosperity.
It is easy to blame the governor for this disobedience of his instructions, and an armchair critic like Portland had no difficulty in doing so, yet it is very difficult for a new ruler to effect a revolution overnight, especially when that revolution would have to be made at the expense of those whose duty it was to be his principal supporters.
The practices indulged in by the New South Wales Corps were not without parallel in other parts of the King's dominions. Macarthur's profits as regimental paymaster were far less than those often accumulated by similar officers in India; the difference between the commercial activities of Macarthur and his fellow officers in New South Wales and equivalent operations elsewhere was that in New South Wales they achieved a position almost of monopoly, whereas on other stations this was rarely possible.
In any case Hunter, after his first strange disobedience, soon repented of his association with Macarthur, and told Portland that 'scarcely nothing short of the full power of the Governor' would satisfy him; it also became obvious that the soldiers of the New South Wales Corps were not over-respectful of the civil power.
Hunter, a pleasant, friendly person as all described him, was easily deceived but, when he learned what was going on, he showed himself choleric, petulant and self-pitying, so much so that with the best will in the world and with full knowledge of the deceptions practised upon him, it is difficult to retain any sympathy for him in his later dispatches.
Yet if Hunter failed as a governor, and Portland judged him a failure, the secretary of state was equally incompetent, slow to answer dispatches, failing to understand the essential weakness of an isolated individual without physical or moral support thousands of miles from his homeland.
Portland severely criticized Hunter for allowing more than two assigned servants to any military officer; he directed that these servants should be fed and clothed by their masters and not from the government store, and particularly required that the officers should cease to trade in spirits.
Yet Portland also paid attention to correspondence from Macarthur, a known dealer in spirits, vehemently attacking the governor for refusing him labourers instead of the two allowed by law.
By Hunter was clearly aware that trading by the officers had to be controlled if the settlers were not all to be bankrupt, and in March he sent a detailed account of the settlers' grievances about inflated prices.
This showed differences of as much as per cent between the landing costs and the price of sale to the public; but, though his solutions would have been satisfactory in a convict prison, they were useless to a developing free community.
Aus einfachen Verhältnissen kommend und auf dem Land aufgewachsen, trat Hunter zunächst eine Assistentenstelle bei seinem Bruder William an.
Unter dem Einfluss seines Lehrers William Cheselden entwickelte Hunter eine kritische Einstellung zur traditionellen medizinischen Praxis und gelangte zur Überzeugung, dass neue Einsichten stets durch systematische Beobachtung und Experimente untermauert werden sollten.
Seinem Lehrer Percivall Pott folgend, versuchte Hunter zudem, operative Eingriffe wann immer möglich zu vermeiden, und vertraute stattdessen auf die Selbstheilungskräfte des Körpers.
Von bis diente Hunter als Militärarzt in Frankreich und Portugal. Nach seiner Rückkehr nach England arbeitete Hunter zunächst als Zahnarzt und versuchte sich in der Transplantation von Zähnen.
Sowohl in St. In seinem veröffentlichten dritten Werk Treatise on the Veneral Disease stellte Hunter die erst widerlegte Theorie auf, dass es sich bei Gonorrhoe und Syphilis um ein und dieselbe Geschlechtskrankheit handele.
Hunter glaubte, er habe seine Theorie in einem Selbstversuch bewiesen, bei dem er sich den Erreger durch einen Schnitt in seinen Penis selbst injizierte.
Allerdings war der Patient, dem er den Eiter für die Injektion entnahm, an beiden Krankheiten erkrankt.
Als einer der besten Präparatoren seiner Zeit baute Hunter über die Jahre eine aus mehr als John Hunter wurde in der Nacht vom Wie seine älteren Geschwister besuchte John die kleine Dorfschule von Long Calderwood, zeigte jedoch schon in früher Jugend eine Abneigung gegen alles Gedruckte.
Dieser hatte im Oktober die erste Schule für Anatomie in England gegründet, aufbauend auf Erfahrungen, die er während seines Medizinstudiums in Leiden und Paris gesammelt hatte.
Erstmals konnten angehende Ärzte sich ihr anatomisches Wissen nicht nur in der Theorie aneignen, sondern auch aus eigener Anschauung und Praxis.
Neben Vorlesungen bestand der Unterricht aus anatomischen Übungen, für die William jedem Studenten einen eigenen Leichnam als Studienobjekt zusicherte.
Da die Körper selbst im Winter aufgrund der fortschreitenden Verwesung kaum länger als eine Woche als Studienobjekte geeignet waren, mussten täglich frische Leichname herangeschafft werden.
Über die Jahre entwickelte John enge Beziehungen zu Bestattern und professionellen Grabräubern, um den steigenden Bedarf an Studienobjekten zu befriedigen.
Während er seine Nächte auf Friedhöfen verbrachte, half Hunter seinem Bruder tagsüber bei der Erstellung von Präparaten und der Betreuung der Studenten.
Dabei erwies er sich als so begabt, dass William ihm schon nach sechsmonatiger Tätigkeit die Arbeit des Präparators übertrug.
Cheselden war einer der angesehensten Chirurgen seiner Zeit. Erstmals hatte er die Möglichkeit, seine Anatomiekenntnisse durch Studien an lebenden Körpern zu erweitern.
An der Seite Cheseldens wohnte Hunter verschiedensten Operationen bei und übernahm dabei dessen Einstellung, nur dann zu operieren, wenn eine klare Aussicht auf Erfolg des Eingriffes gegeben war.
Insbesondere vertrat er den Standpunkt, so weit wie möglich die Selbstheilungskräfte des Körpers zu nutzen. Sorgfältig erstellte Präparate spielten in der medizinischen Ausbildung des Jahrhunderts eine entscheidende Rolle.
Sie halfen angehenden Medizinern, morphologische Merkmale zu identifizieren, die ansonsten nur schwer erkennbar waren. Hunter hatte sich schon früh als überaus geschickt im Umgang mit dem Seziermesser erwiesen.
Zunächst angeleitet von seinem Bruder William, übertraf er diesen bald an Kunstfertigkeit. Während John diese Situation zunächst noch stillschweigend ertrug, regte sich mit steigendem Selbstbewusstsein auch sein Widerstand gegen diese Praxis.
Auch war der Zeitpunkt günstig, denn im Winter setzte die Verwesung viel später ein als in den warmen Sommermonaten.